Americas

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"The Americas" redirects here. For the academic journal, see The Americas (journal).
For other uses, see America (disambiguation).

Landmass comprising North America, Central America and South America

The Americas
Area42,549,000 km2
(16,428,000 sq mi)
Population964,920,000[1]
GDP (nominal)$27.43 trillion[1]
GDP per capita$28,428[1]
HDI0.736[2]
DemonymAmerican,[3] New Worlder[4] (see usage)
Countries35
LanguagesSpanish, English, Portuguese, French, Haitian Creole, Quechua, Guaraní, Aymara, Nahuatl, Dutch and many others
Time zonesUTC−10:00 to UTC
Largest citiesLargest metropolitan areas
Largest cities
List
  • 1.São Paulo
  • 2.Lima
  • 3.Mexico City
  • 4.New York City
  • 5.Bogotá
  • 6.Rio de Janeiro
  • 7.Santiago
  • 8.Los Angeles
  • 9.Caracas
  • 10.Buenos Aires
UN M49 code019 – Americas
001World
1990s CIA political map of the Americas in Lambert azimuthal equal-area projection

The Americas (also collectively called America; French: Amérique, Dutch: Amerika, Spanish and Portuguese: América) comprise the totality of the continents of North and South America.[5][6][7] Together, they make up most of the land in Earth's western hemisphere and comprise the New World.

Along with their associated islands, they cover 8% of Earth's total surface area and 28.4% of its land area. The topography is dominated by the American Cordillera, a long chain of mountains that runs the length of the west coast. The flatter eastern side of the Americas is dominated by large river basins, such as the Amazon, St. Lawrence River / Great Lakes basin, Mississippi, and La Plata. Since the Americas extend 14,000 km (8,700 mi) from north to south, the climate and ecology vary widely, from the arctic tundra of Northern Canada, Greenland, and Alaska, to the tropical rain forests in Central America and South America.

Humans first settled the Americas from Asia between 42,000 and 17,000 years ago. A second migration of Na-Dene speakers followed later from Asia. The subsequent migration of the Inuit into the neoarctic around 3500 BCE completed what is generally regarded as the settlement by the indigenous peoples of the Americas.

The first known European settlement in the Americas was by the Norse explorer Leif Erikson.[8] However, the colonization never became permanent and was later abandoned. The Spanish voyages of Christopher Columbus from 1492 to 1502 resulted in permanent contact with European (and subsequently, other Old World) powers, which led to the Columbian exchange and inaugurated a period of exploration, conquest, and colonization whose effects and consequences persist to the present. The Spanish presence involved the enslavement of large numbers of the indigenous population of America.[9] During the first half of the 16th century, Spanish colonists conducted raids throughout the Caribbean Basin, bringing captives from Central America, northern South America, and Florida back to Hispaniola and other Spanish settlements.[10]

Diseases introduced from Europe and West Africa devastated the indigenous peoples, and the European powers colonized the Americas.[11] Mass emigration from Europe, including large numbers of indentured servants, and importation of African slaves largely replaced the indigenous peoples.

Decolonization of the Americas began with the American Revolution in the 1770s and largely ended with the Spanish–American War in the late 1890s. Currently, almost all of the population of the Americas resides in independent countries; however, the legacy of the colonization and settlement by Europeans is that the Americas share many common cultural traits, most notably Christianity and the use of Indo-European languages: primarily Spanish, English, Portuguese, French, and, to a lesser extent, Dutch.

The Americas are home to over a billion inhabitants, two-thirds of whom reside in the United States, Brazil, and Mexico. It is home to eight megacities (metropolitan areas with ten million inhabitants or more): New York City (23.9 million), Mexico City (21.2 million), São Paulo (21.2 million), Los Angeles (18.8 million), Buenos Aires (15.6 million),[12] Rio de Janeiro (13.0 million), Bogotá (10.4 million), and Lima (10.1 million).